From the Escuela Moderna to the Työväen Opisto: Reading, (W)Riting, and Revolution, the 3 “Rs” of Expanded Proletarian Literacy

Gary Kaunonen


In working class education, one of the primary goals in addition to basic literacy was the formulation of class-based interpretations of society. In the late 19th and early 20th century, as literacy programs began to filter into the lives of proletariat, an attempt to expand the definition of literacy past basic reading and writing skills occasioned the rise of institutions that defined literacy as not only reading and writing, but also knowledge of class and economic theory. Thus, these early proletarian programs developed a broader definition of literacy, past basic reading and writing programs, to class-based educational curriculum.

Full Text:


Comments on this article

View all comments

Publication of the Community Literacy Journal is made possible through the generous support of the English Department and the Writing and Rhetoric Program at Florida International University. The CLJ is a journal of the Conference on Community Writing.